Date of Award

Spring 5-9-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in School Leadership


Center for Leadership & Learning


College of Education

Committee Chair

Dr. John Freeman

Second Committee Member

Dr. Christopher E. Trombly

Third Committee Member

Dr. Sarah Gordon

Program Director

Dr. John Freeman

Dean of Graduate College

Dr. Jeff Robertson


This study was guided by the following research question: What are the perceptions and experiences of participants, Black and White, who attended both segregated and desegregated schools? This phenomenological research study was conducted using two focus groups divided homogeneously into one Black focus group and one White focus group. The Black focus group consisted of three Black females and two Black males. The White focus group consisted of six White females. The findings related to the research revealed that the Black focus group and the White focus group looked at this phenomenon differently along racial lines. These former students actually lived this experience and the effect, according to this research, lingers even today. The research study provided important sociological data about this crucial moment in the history of Arkansas, and in the United States. If we are to create a more equitable society, it is imperative that we understand historic events and phenomena, not only through the perspectives of the majority, but also—just as importantly—from the perspectives of those who lacked such privilege.