High-Density Linkage Maps and Loci for Berry Color and Flower Sex in Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia)
Key message: Linkage maps of muscadine grape generated using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) provide insight into genome collinearity between Muscadinia and Euvitis subgenera and genetic control of flower sex and berry color. Abstract: The muscadine grape, Vitis rotundifolia, is a specialty crop native to the southeastern USA. Muscadine vines can be male, female, or perfect-flowered, and berry color ranges from bronze to black. Genetic linkage maps were constructed using genotyping-by-sequencing in two F 1 populations segregating for flower sex and berry color. The linkage maps consisted of 1244 and 2069 markers assigned to 20 linkage groups (LG) for the ‘Black Beauty’ × ‘Nesbitt’ and ‘Supreme’ × ‘Nesbitt’ populations, respectively. Data from both populations were used to generate a consensus map with 2346 markers across 20 LGs. A high degree of collinearity was observed between the genetic maps and the Vitis vinifera physical map. The higher chromosome number in muscadine (2n = 40) compared to V. vinifera (2n = 38) was accounted for by the behavior of V. vinifera chromosome 7 as two independently segregating LGs in muscadine. The muscadine sex locus mapped to an interval that aligned to 4.64–5.09 Mb on V. vinifera chromosome 2, a region which includes the previously described V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris sex locus. While the MYB transcription factor genes controlling fruit color in V. vinifera are located on chromosome 2, the muscadine berry color locus mapped to an interval aligning to 11.09–11.88 Mb on V. vinifera chromosome 4, suggesting that a mutation in a different gene in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway determines berry color in muscadine. These linkage maps lay the groundwork for marker-assisted breeding in muscadine and provide insight into the evolution of Vitis species.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Lewter, J., Worthington, M. L., Clark, J. R., Varanasi, A. V., Nelson, L., Owens, C. L., Conner, P., & Gunawan, G. (2019). High-density linkage maps and loci for berry color and flower sex in muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 132(5): 1571–1585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03302-7