Operating characteristics of a flare/oxidizer for the disposal of ammonia from an industrial refrigeration facility
The disposal of ammonia released from an industrial refrigeration facility may be accomplished by combustion in a flare or oxidizer. An experimental chamber was fabricated whereby a venturi section separated the combustion zone from the mixing chamber where the supply gases entering were mixed. Using natural gas as the pilot fuel, the flare was operated over the entire flammable region where the combustion temperature and exhaust products were measured. For lean fuel (ammonia and natural gas) combustion conditions and ammonia supply content less than 10% of the total by volume, the ammonia exhaust concentrations were less than 5 ppm. However, the NO concentrations over the same region sometimes exceeded 1,000 ppm. Mineral, paraffinic, and polyester-based oils in weight concentrations 20% and above with ammonia reduced the lower flammability limit (LFL) of ammonia-air mixtures to 12%, 9%, and 8% by volume, respectively. The injection of liquid ammonia to the natural gas pilot flame yielded exhaust ammonia concentrations less than 5 ppm when ammonia to natural gas mass ratios were less than 0.5. X
Fenton, D. L., Chapman, K. S., Kelley, R. D., & Khan, A. S. (1995). Operating characteristics of a flare/oxidizer for the disposal of ammonia from an industrial refrigeration facility. ASHRAE Transactions 101: 463-475.