Date of Award

Winter 12-8-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in School Leadership


College of Education

Committee Chair

Dr. John Albert Freeman

Second Committee Member

Dr. Steve Bounds

Third Committee Member

Dr. Deidra Nelson

Program Director

Dr. John Freeman

Dean of Graduate College

Dr. Sarah Gordon


This study was guided by the central research question: What are the lived experiences and perceptions of former African American teachers and students that endured segregation, desegregation, and integration in Arkansas' Delta? The phenomenological study used eight former African American teachers and student participants. Of the participants, there were four former teachers and four former students. In this study, the participants' voices are captured as they share their experiences and perception of each phase of education that influenced their lives and left an everlasting imprint. Through counternarratives, the participants provided insight into education in the Arkansas Delta during school segregation, desegregation, and integration. The findings from this study disclosed that the education system entailed opposition for African Americans, but they triumphed despite the adversities.